Crystal HabitCrystal Habit
is the external shape displayed by a crystal or an aggregate of crystals.
Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Volcanic ExplosivityVolcanic Explosivity
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Teacher ResourcesTeacher Resources
- K-12 resources for teaching about earth science.
Tallest TsunamiTallest Tsunami
- A wave with a run-up height of 1720 feet occurred in Lituya Bay, Alaska.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
- the volcanic rock that cools so quickly that it becomes a natural glass.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Google Earth - FreeFree Google Earth
software allows you to browse seamless world satellite images. Free.
Methane HydrateMethane Hydrate
deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
- Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
What is Geology?
What is Geology?
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The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
Hand LensHand Lens
A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Grape AgateGrape Agate
is a popular mineral specimen with the color and the shape of a bunch of grapes.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
Horizontal DrillingHorizontal Drilling
has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Homeowners InsuranceHomeowners Insurance
might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Storm SurgeStorm Surge
can be the most damaging and deadly aspect of a hurricane.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.